Pantothenic acid

Essential for

the release of energy from food
cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism
healthy red blood cells
a healthy immune system
healthy adrenal gland function
a healthy nervous system

Absorption and metabolism

Some pantothenic acid may be stored in the liver.


Deficiency is rare in humans except in cases of general malnutrition. Symptoms in animals include graying of hair, decreased growth and adrenal gland abnormalities.

Pantothenic acidSources

Good sources include yeast, liver, eggs, wheatgerm, milk, meat, poultry and whole grains. It is also produced by bacteria in the gut.

Daily recommended dietary intakes

The adequate intake for pantothenic acid has been set at 5 mg per day.

Toxic effects of excess intake

The risk of toxicity is very low. Symptoms may include diarrhea, fluid retention, drowsiness and depression.


Sulfa drugs, sleeping pills, estrogen and alcohol may raise pantothenic acid requirements.

Therapeutic uses of supplements

Supplements have been used to treat fatigue, stress, allergies, headaches, arthritis and nerve disorders. Pantetheine has been used to lower high cholesterol and blood fats.

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Other Vitamins:

Vitamin A
Beta carotene
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12
Pantothenic acid
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K