Iodine overdose, Toxic effects of excess intake
Symptoms of acute poisoning from ingestion of iodine (rather than iodide) are mainly due to its corrosive effects on the gastrointestinal tract and include vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Other symptoms may include metallic taste, sore teeth, gum and mouth, and severe headache. Eventually the kidneys fail to produce urine. A fatal dose is 2 to 3 g of iodine. Treatment is with large volumes of milk and starch solutions with 1 per cent solution of potassium thiosulfate.
Toxic effects from the iodide form of iodine are rare and may include a reduction of thyroid hormone secretion, acne, and inflammation of the salivary glands when doses reach 1500 mcg. Dietary intake of iodine should not exceed 1000 mcg per day for any length of time. Toxic symptoms may result from high intakes which occur as part of medical treatment with iodine as iodides. Patients may become hypersensitive after prolonged oral administration.
Topical application of iodine-containing disinfectants may lead to hypothyroidism in newborn babies.
A disorder known as hyperthyroidism of Graves disease is due to an overactive thyroid. It is not due to over-consumption of iodine, but happens as a result of a disruption in the mechanisms that control thyroid hormone function.
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